Пароли в Tiny Core
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1 Тема от monstr 2011-09-28 22:08:16
- Зарегистрирован: 2011-09-24
- Сообщений: 48
Тема: Пароли в Tiny Core
Если вы хотите, чтобы другие люди не смогли войти в компьютер, вы можете добавить пароли к Tinycore.
Если вы используете загрузчик Extlinux, есть еще один вариант – добавить пароли к Extlinux.
Добавление паролей в Tiny Core
Чтобы добавить пароль для пользователя tc, откройте терминал и введите:
Для добавления пароля пользователю root введите:
Сохранение паролей, используя бэкап:
Если хотите использовать Backup для сохранения паролей, то добавьте строку:
в файл /opt/.filetool.lst
Сохранение будет происходить при выключении компьютера.
Сохранение пароля, используя директорию opt
Если вы используете постоянную директорию opt, то откройте терминал и введите:
В файл /opt/bootsync.sh добавьте следующие строки:
Заметим, что эта команда и права доступа для группы g+w будут применяться при каждой загрузке, как и для других файлов в opt.
Запрос пароля при загрузке системы
Для активации опции запроса пароля при загрузке системы используйте следующий загрузочный код:
в менеджере загрузки.
Не входите в систему как ROOT!
Входите в систему как пользователь tc, не как root.
Для запуска каких-либо задач от имени root используйте sudo перед командой.
If you want to prevent other people from logging into your computer, you can add passwords to Tinycore.
If you are using the Extlinux bootloader, another option is to add passwords to Extlinux. For more information, see Extlinux Passwords.
Add Passwords to Tinycore
To add a password for user tc, open the terminal and type
To add a password for root, type
The procedure described above stores the password using 8-byte parity, so the password will be 8 characters long, i.e. “passwd 123456789” will allow to login using “12345678” or “12345678blahblah” as password. This occurs on 4.1 and 4.2. Use “passwd -a md5” instead. (see http://forum.tinycorelinux.net/index.php?topic=9215.0)
Save Passwords using Backup
If you use Backup, to save passwords, add
Backup when shutting down the computer.
Save Passwords using Persistent opt
If you use persistent opt, open the terminal and type
Add the following to /opt/bootsync.sh
Note that this will apply group staff and mode g+w to /opt/shadow on each boot, as it’s the case with every file in /opt.
Use Password to Log In
To be prompted for Username and Password when logging in, add the bootcode
Don’t Log In as Root
Log in as tc, not as root.
If you want to perform root tasks, use sudo before commands.
Tiny core linux password
The Start Button is just a way to bring up the menu. As Tiny Core uses FLWM Window Manager, right click anywhere on the background or window title of the screen to bring up the menu. Then navigate the menus as usual. If you decide not to select anything and want the menu to go away, then left click on the background.
How do I add/load/install extensions?
For best results use the desktop application Appbrowser, it is available from the icon launch bar or the system menu.
Using Appbrowser will fetch the requested extension and all of its required dependencies. See: Downloads Howto
Extensions disappear after booting. How do I keep my extensions?
To make your extensions persistent Tiny Core needs a directory to store them. Do the following:
Boot CD, at first boot prompt press f2. Notice the line “tce=
then at the boot prompt type: tinycore tce=xxyz where xxyz is your drive partition particulars.
Note: This tce= boot option is only needed one time! The System will autoscan for it upon each boot. However for faster booting, add the tce= boot option to your bootloader.
If you forget to boot with this option and are already at the desktop, then from the icon launch bar select Control or the system menu ControlPanel.
Select Set TCE Drive and you will be prompted to select your drive partition for the tce directory.
Note: Drive partition types supported by Tiny Core base are: ext2, ext3, ext4, fat32.
How do I update my extensions?
The safe method to keeping your collection of extensions updated is to boot base norestore
and run tce-update from the command line. This will perform a batch update.
Sometimes, you need a few extensions to access the net, an alternate batch update method is:
From the main system tools menu: ControlPanel->Update Apps.
When run in safe mode (booting with base norestore) you are
assured that no extension will be in use during the upgrade procedure and is therefore recommended.
An alternate selective update method is:
AppsAudit->Updated->Check for Updates
Select an extension for update. The Results panel will update.
After updating your desired extensions, reboot.
AppsAudit->Dependencies->Update .dep files-> (Note this step is optional, but will ensure that all your .dep files are up to date.)
->Build Reporting Database->Display All with Missing Dependencies.
If any extensions are displayed, use AppBrowser to Download + Load them.
How do I delete an extension?
Use appsaudit. See Tools->AppsAudit from the system menu. This is a GUI reporting and deletion tool. This provides a safe method to delete an extension and all unencumbered dependencies. The extensions marked for deletion will be removed during shutdown, ensuring that no extension is in use. Several reports are also available to check on dependencies.
How do I use system menu/taskbar/pager?
How to use pendrives and other removable devices with Tiny Core?
Installing Core to USB pendrives is easily accomplished with Core’s tc-install extension which is provided on CorePlus.
Therefore it is highly recommended to use CorePlus, much work has gone into this to make an easy and effortless installations for both hard drive and USB pendrives with whatever window manager you prefer. See the video provided.
For those users coming from Windows there is now an installation tool just for you. Core2usb is a Windows native program that make it easy to install Core from downloaded iso file to bootable pendrive. Core2usb can be found on Sourceforge.
Note using other third party installation tools, such as, unetbootin is not and cannnot be automatic. Obviously unetbootin does not “know” about our distribution, i.e., not listed in the drop choices. Therefore using unetbootin simply copies the entire iso to target.
On a cdrom we cannot have a tce dir. It would be READ_ONLY and nothing would work insofar as adding extensions. That is why there is a cde directory in the iso! It is also a fact that one cannot have two tce directores in the same partition. Nothing new about that,
It should be obvious that one can use the TinyCore CD or the CorePlus CD READ_ONLY devices to process and access any tce directory on a writable store, i.e., works as expected.
Therefore if one insists on using a third party installation tool and one that does not officially support Core and thereby copies the entirety of the TinyCore iso then you are faced with manual setup of either creating a second partition for your tce dir, or renaming the cde to tce thus indicating that this is not a CD and editing the syslinux.cfg changing cde to waitusb=5 to indicate that is a pendrive.
It is not recommended to have a cde directory on any live working system. The whole point of modularity is the ability to easily upgrade the X/GUI extension separate from the base Core.
Therefore in the case of unetbootin renaming cde to tce is required.
Tiny Core supports UUID and LABELS.
This is most helpful when using pendrives on different machines and you want to “anchor” your Tiny Core boot codes to a specific device.
To find the UUID of a device use the command blkid
blkid -s UUID /dev/sda1
You can mount devices by UUID with the mount command, e.g,
# mount -U 4773-DFE2
The UUID tends to be long, so best to cut and paste into your menu.lst boot options.
You can now specify the device to be used by UUID as follows:
tce=UUID=4773-DFE2 home=UUID=4773-DFE2 opt=UUID=4773-DFE2 restore=UUID=4773-DFE2
Typically this is helpful when using pendrives, be sure to add the waitusb=5 option.
Advanced users may add a specific device to wait for, with the time limit being the maximum time to wait:
You can now also use LABELS. This too is optional.
To write a label on the partition of a pendrive, use the command tune2fs
# tune2fs -L tinycore /dev/sda1
You can check your results with
blkid -s LABEL /dev/sda1
Then you can specify devices by LABEL, e.g.
# mount -L tinycore
For Tiny Core boot options use:
tce=LABEL=tinycore home=LABEL=tinycore opt=LABEL=tinycore restore=LABEL=tinycore
In order to use labels on other filesystems than ext2/3/4, see their respective extensions:
– for fat16/32 dosfstools-3.tcz contains the tool dosfslabel
– for JFS jfsutils.tcz contains the tool jfs_tune
– for XFS xfsprogs.tcz contains the tool xfs_admin
– for reiserfs reiserfsprogs.tcz contains the tool reiserfstune
LABELS and UUID can also be used as follows:
When booting from an iso, e.g., TinyCore-4.6.iso, using the iso boot parameter.
sudo fromISOfile LABEL=”MULTIBOOT” sudo fromISOfile UUID=”6417-C033″
You may combine LABELS and UUID with paths, e.g.,
iso=UUID=”12345_678/images/tinycore.iso” for the iso. and
tce=UUID=”12345_678/tinycore/tce” for normal installation.
How to resolve ‘Failed to load firmware’ error?
When booting Tiny Core 2.x an error like the following appears:
e100: eth0: e100_request_firmware: Failed to load firmware “e100/d102e_ucode.bin”: -2
Boot continues very slowly after the message. Desktop appears but network access is disabled
To resolve many firmware issues see: firmware-22.214.171.124-tinycore.tcz extension.
How to setup a proxy with Tiny Core?
How can I set an http proxy for downloading extensions? I am sitting behind a restrictive firewall and need to go through a proxy to the internet.
export http_proxy=’proxy.domain: port’
If a username and password are required:
How do I make aterm default to transparency mode?
Transparency is not the default in v1.3. The choice to make it default is under the control of the user by editing the .Xdefaults file in the their home directory.
Shading is not 100%. No change was made to the v1.2 of 70%
A simple change from Aterm*transparent: false to Aterm*transparent: true will allow wbar to launch Aterm with transparency.
Current .Xdefaults in v1.3:
How do I mount windows shares?
If the sharing computer is at least Windows 2000, you can mount the share with only the filesystems-126.96.36.199-tinycore.tcz extension.
mount -t cifs //188.8.131.52/myshare /mnt/windows -o user=myname,pass=mypassword
Replace the IP with your sharing computer’s IP. If you need to log into a domain instead of the computer, you can add domain=mydomain to the options.
How to Cut and Paste?
To cut and paste in Linux one simply highlights the text with the left mouse button and then press the middle button to paste. If you have a two button mouse you would paste by pressing the left and right button together. Cutting and pasting takes a little practice, but is very efficient after one gets used to it.
Many terminals and apps also support shift-insert to paste.
How To Set the Timezone?
If you live where in an area that has DST then you need to use the full specific ation for the tz variable. Indicating both the begin and end of DST. So for PDT it begins March second Sunday at 2AM and end November first Sunday at 2AM.
For more info see this post on the forums.
How To Clean Up Wbar?
Right click on ‘Wbar’ and that will restart Wbar and clean up any leftovers.
What Bootcodes does Tiny Core Support?
At the boot prompt press [F2] and [F3] [F4]. In addition there are many generic kernel boot parameters.
Help X does not start. Why does my system boot up to a login prompt?
Tiny Core defaults to vga=791 or 1024×768 but your machine may not be able to support that resolution.
At the first boot prompt type:
This boot code creates a selectable table from the Xvesa -listmodes so it is easier to use.
If you get a blinking cursor after the “Xauthority” lines, try hitting ctrl-C to get back to text prompt, then type xsetup.sh and try another screen resolution option.
From text prompt, type: startx
Note: Xvesa -listmodes displays what your video card is capable of, but not necessarily what your monitor is. If your system does not support Xvesa then perhaps the framebuffer extension (see F2 boot screen and below for instructons).
The last resort is to use the Xorg extension.
How to use framebuffer X server?
In order to use framebuffer (Xfbdev) you will need to have a persistent store, e.g., a PPR.
Boot Tiny Core as follows, using an appropriate vga code from the f2 boot help screen and an appropriate disk partition.
boot: tinycore tce=hda1 text vga=788
At the system prompt:
$ tce-load Xfbdev.tce wget install # This is for TC 2.2 and below
$ tce-load -w -i Xfbdev.tcz # This is for TC 2.3 and above
From the X desktop, shutdown with backup. Your Xfbdev X settings will be saved and used on the next boot.
Do not use the text boot code and your framebuffer X server should start successfully.
My keyboard is not US. How to add a keymap?
The extension “kmaps.tcz” was created just for this. It includes all keymaps from the kbd package. Keymaps have to be changed in the console, not in X.
So, for a quick test, load the extension, exit to prompt, and type:
Help. Not all keys work in browser or openoffice?
If the altgr symbols do not work in the browser or openoffice then modify the .xsession file by adding:
sleep 3 && xmodmap -e “clear Mod4” -e “add Mod5 = Mode_switch” &
Or, in later versions, right after waitforX.
What is the boot architecture?
Tinycore always boots to ram. This unique way has several advantages, like 100% functioning usb boot, awesome speed, and being able to boot without having the ability to access the boot device after booting. You’re free to snag out the usb drive right after initrd is loaded, for example.
How to use startup scripts?
The directory /usr/local/tce.installed is where TC keeps track of loaded extensions.
Typically this is a ‘flag’ a zero byte file. Notice that the extension name does not include its file extension.
Now, if you need a startup script then include it in tar file at this location and its name needs to match the extension name. Do make sure that the script works and is executeable. Do not use .sh or any other file extension.
A very simple example is in order:
Take for example the 915resolution.tce extension.
If we want to make a startup script then it would be placed in
The actual startup script could be anything that is executeable.
Using the same example, my /usr/local/tce.installed/915resolution is a simple as this:
/usr/local/sbin/915resolution 50 1024 600
Note: Be sure to use full paths as during boot no login has occured yet no PATHs are set.
So the final result of a 915resolution.tce with a startup script would contain
What are the minimum requirements?
An absolute minimum of RAM is 46mb. TC won’t boot with anything less, no matter how many terabytes of swap you have.
Microcore runs with 28mb of ram.
The minimum cpu is i486DX (486 with a math processor).
A recommended configuration:
Pentium 2 or better, 128mb of ram + some swap
Can TC be contained in a single directory?
While TC can reside entirely inside a tce directory, placing the boot files in it conflicts with the loading of the core items (Xlibs.gz, Xprogs.gz..) and can result in various errors.
It’s recommended to place the boot files either in /boot, or in a subdirectory of the tce directory.
Can TC boot and be used directly from an ISO file?
Starting with v4.4rc3 it is now possible to load the embedded extensions inside an iso image file. Booting from an iso as supplied by various boot loaders, eg YUMI, the embedded extensions were not readily available.
The new fromISOfile now provides for full X/GUI+ experience.
It can be used as a boot code:
boot: tc iso=sdb1
This short version will scan sdb1 for isos and if one is found will attempt to mount and process it.
Optionally one can use the full path to avoid the scanning delay with:
boot: tc iso=/mnt/sdb1/multiboot/ISOS/TinyCore-4.4.iso
After boot is also supported. If the system booted from an iso file and you are at:
then use either the short/scan style or fullpath
$ sudo fromISOfile /mnt/sdb1
Once you have it working and you have set your tce directory, tce-setdrive
then you can add fromISOfile to /opt/bootsync.sh as
This will result in the familair X/GUI from a single ISO image file.
How do I start X apps on boot?
Add them to files in /home/tc/.X.d, one per file, backgrounded. Here’s how to start Opera at boot:
How do I increase the number of loop devices to support more .tcz extensions?
Add the cheatcode max_loop=n to your boot line, where n is the number of loop devices you need, up to 255.
Note that this bootcode should not be used with 3.x or newer, unless you know you need it.
How to get flash working?
Short answer: see the getFlash9.tcz extension.
Flash 10 has such steep requirements, it is not supported on TC. The last working version was 10 beta 2, but due to the beta nature of that, using Flash 9 is recommended.
Don’t use Adobe’s installer, copy libflashplayer.so yourself to your browser’s plugin folder.
To have sound in Flash using OSS, you need to copy libflashsupport (included in OSS.tcz) to both /usr/lib and your browser’s plugin folder.
There are two variations of the library in /usr/lib/oss/lib, one only enabling OSS sound, the other enabling that and also playing flash over SSL. You need OpenSSL for the second library.
Depending on if you have OpenSSL loaded and need to use flash over SSL, pick one of the libs, and copy it to both /usr/lib and your browser’s plugin folder, and then rename it to libflashsupport.so in both places.
Requirements: Flash 9 requires GTK+-2.
How to use/share Virtual Disks (Qemu)?
Virtual disk support (tcvd, tiny core virtual disk) is beginning with Tiny Core v1.4
This was primarily setup for Qemu support, but is useful for anyone. It uses the Qemu virtual disk image ext2, a loopback file.
To use first specify the ‘harddisk’ file with the tcvd boot option followed by your regular boot optons using tcvd, examples:
boot: tinycore waitusb=10 tcvd=harddisk.img tce=tcvd restore=tcvd
This will autoscan for the file named harddisk.img in level one directories and setup mount capabilities as device tcvd. The subsequent tce=tcvd and restore=tcvd will use the virtual drive special device.
boot: tinycore waitusb=10 tcvd=sda1/harddisk.img tce=tcvd restore=tcvd
This will look for the loopback file named harddisk on sda1 and setup a special device tcvd used by the other boot opitons.
boot: tinycore waitusb=10 tcvd=sda1/qemu/harddisk.img tce=tcvd restore=tcvd
This is/was the typical Qemu setup that I used in Damn Small Linux. Again a special device tcvd will be setup and then other boot options are able
to use it.
Administrator / SuperUser / Root:
Each system requires some command to be run as the administrator. In Tiny Core, such user is called root. To get root privileges to run a specific command, just proceed the command with the word sudo.
To become the super user, then use the command sudo su. Normally, you should not run your system as root.